7 Most Common Wheat Grains Sourced for Milling
Hard Red Winter Wheat
The dominant class in U.S. exports and the largest class produced each year. Produced in the Great Plains states, a large interior area extending from the Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to Mexico. Wide range of protein content, good milling and baking characteristics. Used to produce bread, rolls and, to a lesser extent, sweet goods and all-purpose flour.
Hard Red Spring Wheat
Contains the highest percentage of protein, making it an excellent bread wheat with superior milling and baking characteristics. Majority of crop is grown in Montana and the Dakotas on the American Great Plains.
Soft Red Winter
Grown primarily east of the Mississippi River. High yielding, but relatively low protein. Used for flat breads, cakes, pastries, and crackers.
The hardest of all U.S. wheat and consistently the class with the lowest export volume, accounting for less than 5 percent of all U.S. wheat exports. Grown in the same northern states as Hard Red Spring, although 70 to 80 percent of the U.S. annual production comes from North Dakota. Used to make semolina flour for pasta production
Hard White Wheat
Closely related to red wheat (except for color genes), this wheat has a milder, sweeter flavor, equal fiber and similar milling and baking properties. Used mainly in yeast breads, hard rolls, bulgur, tortillas and oriental noodles.
Soft White Wheat
Grown mainly in the Pacific Northwest and to a lesser extent in California, Michigan, Wisconsin and New York. Low protein, but high yielding. Produces flour for baking cakes, crackers, cookies, pastries, quick breads, muffins and snack foods.
Spelt is an ancient grain that dates back to about 5000 BC, when it was first cultivated in the region now called Iran. A kernel of spelt looks like a large grain of rice. Spelt has been grown in Europe for over 300 years and in North America for just over 100 years; typically used as a feed grain for animals. However, it has gained popularity as a dietary grain due to its nutty flavor, high protein and nutrition content. This flour is best used with white bread flour. Even though it does contain gluten, spelt seems to be tolerated by most wheat-sensitive people